Biology

BIOLOGY A

Unit I: Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes

Section 1: Macromolecules

Assignment #1: Carbon Compounds (Notes) (Questions)

Assignment #2: Reading Check 2-3

 

  • Structure and Function
    • Macromolecules:
      • Assignment #1:
    • Homeostasis (osmosis, order diffusion, nurse active transport, pharm facilitated transport, water)
  • Cellular Growth and Development
    • Levels of organization in organisms.
    • Mitosis:
      • Cells divide through the process of mitosis, resulting in daughter cells that have the same genetic composition as the original cell.
    • Meiosis
  • Intro to gametes, chromosomes

 

Unit II: Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy and Dynamics

  •   Organization for Matter and Energy Flow in Organisms
  • ATP: structure and how energy is stored in the bonds
  • Photosynthesis
    • Light dependent photosynthetic reaction
    • Light independent (Calvin-Benson Cycle) photosynthetic reaction
    • Cellular respiration
      • The breakdown of glucose during glycolysis and the formation of energy in the Kreb’s cycle
        • Respiration in the absence of Oxygen in both plants and animals
  • Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems
  • Autotroph and heterotroph
  • Interactions and competition between organisms and their environment including abiotic and biotic factors, predator/prey relationships, niches, affect their habitats, communities, populations, biomes, symbiosis (parasitism, commensalism, mutualism), mimicry.
  • An ecosystem’s stability can be influenced by density independent and dependent limiting factors, succession, and carrying capacity of the environment
    • Cycles of Matter and Energy Transfer in Ecosystems
    • Biogeochemical cycling (water, nitrogen, carbon, phosphorus)
    • Energy are naturally cycled through food chains, food webs, and pyramids
      • Ecosystem Dynamics, Functioning, and Resilience
  • Humans intentionally and unintentionally modify and destroy local and global ecosystems as a result of population growth, technology, and consumption of resources producing acid rain, greenhouse gases, and global climate change. (LS4.B)

 

Unit III: Heredity: Inheritance & Variation of Traits

  • Inheritance of Traits
    • DNA Structure:
      • Genes are segments of DNA which are coded to determine a sequence of amino acids for protein formation
  • Variation of Traits
    • DNA Replication:
      • DNA Replication follows the semi-conservative rules of base pairing where Adenine bonds to Thymine and Cytosine bonds with Guanine through Hydrogen bonding which creates an exact copy of the original strand
      • An altered gene may be passed on to every cell that develops from it. The resulting features may help, harm, or have little or no effect on the offspring’s success in its environment
    • Protein Synthesis: 
      • The process and location of protein synthesis, including the function of the ribosome
      • Transcription and translation (initiation, polypeptide formation, termination)
      • Anti-codon/codon relationship between mRNA and tRNA
      • RNA polymerase and primase.
    • Meiosis
      • The processes of oogenesis and spermatogenesis through the products of meiosis
      • Genetics
      •   Sexually produced offspring are never identical to either of their parents resulting from the tetrad of homologous chromosomes crossing over producing gametes used in fertilization forming zygote
  • Phenotypic and genotypic ratio for a given monohybrid and dihybrid cross including: simple dominance, incomplete dominance and codominance.

 

Unit IV: Biological Evolution: Unity & Diversity

  • Mutations:
  • Mutations (translocation, insertion, deletion, duplication, inversion) within the building of a peptide chain.
    • Inserting, deleting, or substituting DNA segments can alter the genetic code.
    • Evidence of Common Ancestry and Diversity

      • Fossil records
      • Homologous, analogous, vestigial structures and embryological
      • Genetic Information/Amino acid Sequencing
      • Natural Selection
        • Natural selection, through genetic variability, due to environmental pressure, of organisms allow species to survive and produce offspring
        • Adaptation
          • Natural selection through comparative biochemistry and adaptations have led to the speciation of new populations
          • Four factors resulting in natural selection 
          • changes in physical environment influences adaptations
          • Biodiversity and Humans

            • Biodiversity results in the formation of new species (speciation) minus the loss of species (extinction).
  • Human activity can influence extinction and natural selection
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