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Week 11 Vocabulary

Unit 2: Heredity

Posted in 7th Grade Life Science

Genetics 3 Vocabulary

Incomplete Dominance: a situation in which one allele is not completely dominant over another allele.

Codominance: a situation in which both alleles for a gene are expressed equally.

Multiple Alleles: three or more possible alleles of a gene that determine a trait.

Polygenic inheritance: The inheritance of traits that are controlled by two or more genes, such as height in humans.

Genetic Variation: The  variation in alleles of genes, occurs both within and among populations. Genetic variation is important because it provides the genetic material for natural selection.

Proteins: they are large organic molecule made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur.

Mutations: Any change in the DNA of a gene or a chromosome.

Chromosomes: A threadlike structure within a cell’s nucleus that contains DNA that is passed form one generation to the next.

Mitosis: The second stage of the cell cycle during which the cell’s nucleus divides into two new nuclei and one set of DNA is distributed into each daughter cell.

Meiosis: The process that occurs in the formation of sex cells (sperm and egg) by which the number of chromosomes is reduced by half.

Mendel: The father of Genetics

Traits: Specific characteristics that an organism can pass to its offspring through its genes.

Genes: The sequence of DNA that determines a trait and is passed from parent to offspring.

Posted in 7th Grade Life Science

Genetics II Vocabulary

Probability: A number that describes how likely it is that a particular event will occur.

Punnett Square: A chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross.

Phenotype: An organism’s physical appearance, or visible traits.

Genotype: An organism’s genetic makeup, or allele combinations.

Homozygous: Having two identical alleles for a particular gene. (example: tt or TT)

Heterozygous: Having two different alleles for a particular gene. (example: Tt)

Sexual Reproduction: A reproductive process that involves two parents that combine their genetic material to produce a new organism which differs from both parents.

Asexual Reproduction: A reproductive process that involves only one parent  and reproduces offspring that are genetically identical to the parent.

DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid; the genetic material that carries information about an organism and is passed from parent to offspring.

Offspring:  is the product of reproduction of a new organism produced by one or more parents.

Organism: A living thing..

Cell: the basic unit of structure and function in living things

Genes: a sequence of DNA that determines a trait and is passed from parent to offspring.

 

HONORS: additional terms

Transfer RNA: a type of RNA in the cytoplasm that carries an amino acid to the ribosome during protein synthesis.

Messenger RNA: a type of RNA that carries copies of instructions for the assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA to ribosomes in the cytoplasm.

Double Helix: the shape of a DNA molecule.

Posted in 7th Grade Life Science

Genetics I Vocabulary

Here is the list of the Genetic I Vocabulary terms and definitions.

Heredity: the passing of traits from parents to offspring.

Trait: a specific characteristic that an organism can pass to its offspring through its genes.

Genetics: The scientific study of heredity.

Fertilization: the process in sexual reproduction in which an egg cell and a sperm cell join to form a new cell.

Purebred: an offspring of many generations that has the same form of a trait.

Gene: A sequence of DNA that determines a trait and is passed from parent to offspring.

Allele: The different forms of a gene.

Dominant Allele: an allele whose trait always shows up in the organism when the allele is present.

Recessive Allele: an allele that is hidden whenever the dominant allele is present.

Hybrid: an offspring of crosses that has two different alleles for a trait.

Independent Variable: the variable that is being tested by the person conducting the experiment.

Dependent Variable: also known as the responding variable is how the independent variable is measured by the experimenter.

Control: the variable that stays constant and can be used for comparison with the independent variable.

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